The quality and purity of the dialysis fluid are of major concern in renal replacement therapies, as large volumes of dialysis fluid come into contact with the patient’s bloodstream during each treatment. This is particularly the case with online haemodiafiltration (HDF), in which large fluid volumes are exchanged.
Thus, the use of ultrapure dialysis fluid free from bacterial endotoxins and other microbial contamination is crucial in preventing undesirable acute reactions and influencing long-term patient outcomes. In addition, it has been shown to improve the control of anaemia, making it an important cornerstone of cardioprotective haemodialysis.1
The routine production of ultrapure dialysis fluid and substitution fluid (defined as endotoxins <0.03 IU/mL) relies on the implementation of ultrafilters.